A key research area covered by the European Laboratory on Big Data and Social Mining Network Science, an interdisciplinary discipline focusing on the study of interconnected entities, including social, biological, communication and computer networks. The main objective of the field is to develop explanatory and predictive models for physical, social, technological and biological phenomena. Inside this field, the laboratory is particularly active in the modeling, analysis and mining of Multidimensional (Social) Networks, where multiple kinds of relations may coexist among individuals. This is a fundamental step toward a better understanding of our complex society, and involves the development of analytical measures, as well as algorithms to perform community discovery, link prediction and the analysis of highly connected nodes (the so-called “hubs”). Several applications of theoretical advances in this area are envisioned, including the monitoring and analysis of mobility networks, using human trajectories as edges to connect different geographical areas and/or points of interest, the analysis of trust networks, the identification of possible privacy and/or security fallacies. Therefore, theoretical developments in network science are expected to play a fundamental role in supporting the other research directions of the Lab.